artemisia annua common name

While the USA launched a hugely expensive research program that eventually lead to the development of the drug mefloquine (Croft 2007), the Chinese turned instead to their well-documented heritage of traditional medicines. Introduction to the Genus. Artemisia Species in Traditional Chinese Medicine and the Discovery of Artemisinin. Chinese medicine has long made use of this herb in the treatment of malaria, inflammation and fevers. 2016]. In cases of malaria treatment, however, the likelihood of recurrence increased more than if the traditional quinine treatment had been employed. Youyou, T., 2004. Paired with the relatively low demand on the environment Artemisia annua can have characteristics of a neophytic plant.[13]. Available at: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/16/2/320.abstract [Accessed 4 Jun. Its optimal growth temperature lies within 20 and 25 °C. Analysis and Quality Control of Commercial Artemisia Species. The desirable properties of these herbs are largely the result of their aromatic essential oils. [10] The fertilizer requirements are on a low level. History of Malaria in the United States Naval Forces at War: World War I Through the Vietnam Conflict. In … Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. Total synthesis is unlikely to become a major source of the drug in the near future (Wang et al. However, its effectiveness was limited by poor bioavailability (i.e. The dry branches are shaken or beaten to separate the leaves from the stem. Spatula DD – Peer Reviewed Journal on Complementary Medicine and Drug Discovery, 1(2), pp.113–118. [37] Encouraging herbal alternatives are in the pipeline, but a more dependable solution for the eradication of malaria would be the creation of an effective vaccination. Milk Thistle – blessed by the Virgin Mary herself! The intensive aromatic scent of the leaves is characteristic. Beadle, C. and Hoffman, S.L., 1993. [18][28] While most TCM herbs are boiled at high temperature that can damage the active ingredient in Artemisia annua,[28] one traditional source calls for this herb to be steeped in cold water. [40] Although WHO recommends artemisinin-based remedies for treating uncomplicated malaria, artemisinin resistance has become a concern. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(5), pp.411–423. Artemisia annua is a medicinal plant whose use has long been reported in China, where it is locally known as qinghao. In: C. Wright, ed., Artemisia, 1st ed. The use of this plant (commonly named sweet wormwood, annual wormwood, or qinghaosu) in Chinese traditional medicine was recorded before 168 bc. Other compounds may also have a synergistic antimalarial effect when combined with artemisinin (Hsu 2006). You might think Artemisia is the feminine form of the name, but in fact the original Artemis is feminine too, the name of the Greek mythological goddess of the moon. Artemisia annua, also known as sweet wormwood,[2] sweet annie, sweet sagewort, annual mugwort[3] or annual wormwood (Chinese: 黄花蒿; pinyin: huánghuāhāo), is a common type of wormwood native to temperate Asia, but naturalized in many countries including scattered parts of North America. Tu Youyou recognised the significance of Ge Hong’s specification of fresh (as opposed to dry) herb, and the use of low temperatures. 2016]. Hence it is important that antimalarial drugs can be provided at low cost. Variation and Heritability of Artemisinin Content in Artemisia annua L. In: C. Wright, ed., Artemisia, 1st ed. 2008; Mueller et al. The Development of the Antimalarial Drugs with New Type of Chemical Structure – Qinghaosu and Dihydroqinghaosu. Cultivation of Artemisia annua L. In: C. Wright, ed., Artemisia, 1st ed. [27] Further researches in the synergistic effect of artemisinin and flavonoids and their biological interaction between malaria and cancer are needed. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 61(6), pp.666–670. A review of the literature. The turning point came when researchers at the Institute of Traditional Medicine in Beijing came across an interesting sentence  from the work “Emergency Prescriptions Kept up one’s Sleeve” by polymath Ge Hong (284-363). Artemisia annua : Other Source(s): Source: Asteraceae of North America Update, database (version 2010.5.13) Acquired: 2010 ... Common Name: Scientific Name : TSN: In: Kingdom Go to Advanced Search and Report . 2016]. 2016]. Artemisia annua is also known by the names absinthium, annual wormwood, sweet wormwood, Sweet Annie and Qing Hao. [22] In 2015 artemisinin was shown to bind to a large number targets suggesting that it acts in a promiscuous manner. Potassium should be used as base fertilizer. The annual herb Artemisia annua L. belongs to the Asteraceae (i.e. Another problem is the difficulty of controlling the dose. [12] But it is reported, that the plant is adaptable to different soil types. Technologies for global health. ½g. Artemisinin organicteaHU. 2016]. Laughlin, J., Heazlewood, G., and Beattie, B., 2002. A. annua is a slow-growing wind-pollinated plant, native to temperate Asia and Eastern Europe, and is now also naturalized in North America (Woerdenbag & Pras 2002). Available at: http://embor.embopress.org/content/4/6S/S29 [Accessed 4 Jun. [24] The first isolation of artemisinin from the herb occurred from a military project known as Project 523, following the study of traditional medicine pharmacopoeias performed by Tu Youyou and other researchers within the project. The official drug consists of the dried aerial parts of A. annua, which are collected in autumn when in full bloom, before removing the older stems and drying in the shade (Tang & Eisenbrand 1992). Image I Image II Botanical Name: Artemisia annua Common name: Annual Wormwood (Mueller, Runyambo, Wagner, Borrmann, Dietz & Heide, 1984, Abstract). Leaves. 2016]. sweet annie. 2016]. Scientific Name Artemisia annua ← → Other Common Names: sweet wormwood. One problem shared by many plant-derived drugs is variability in the content of the active compound. Artanacetum Rzazade Abrotanum Mill. In fact, in 2006, the WHO called for pharmaceutical companies to stop producing drugs that contain only artemisinin-type drugs, in favour of combination drugs (WHO 2006). [16] Besides few viral diseases Artemisia a. has no major diseases that need to be controlled. These combination therapies are about 90% effective, provided there are no medical complications (Howitt et al. Current Drug Discovery Technologies, 7(1), pp.2–12. This works because any given malaria parasite is unlikely to possess resistance to both types of drugs. Available at: http://trstmh.oxfordjournals.org/content/98/5/318.abstract [Accessed 4 Jun. 2016]. … The eyes were bathed twice daily with cool artemisia tea, filtered through cloth (or better even coffee-filterpaper), plus artemisia tea taken internally. In the plant itself, artemisinin is made from a closely related chemical called artemisinic acid. Binomial name; Artemisia annua. Synthetic Communications, 44(14), pp.1987–2003. Artemisia annua L. Common names. They are linear or lancolate in shape and have toothed edges. Paddon, C.J., Westfall, P.J., Pitera, D.J., Benjamin, K., Fisher, K., McPhee, D., Leavell, M.D., Tai, A., Main, A., Eng, D., Polichuk, D.R., Teoh, K.H., Reed, D.W., Treynor, T., Lenihan, J., Jiang, H., Fleck, M., Bajad, S., Dang, G., Dengrove, D., Diola, D., Dorin, G., Ellens, K.W., Fickes, S., Galazzo, J., Gaucher, S.P., Geistlinger, T., Henry, R., Hepp, M., Horning, T., Iqbal, T., Kizer, L., Lieu, B., Melis, D., Moss, N., Regentin, R., Secrest, S., Tsuruta, H., Vazquez, R., Westblade, L.F., Xu, L., Yu, M., Zhang, Y., Zhao, L., Lievense, J., Covello, P.S., Keasling, J.D., Reiling, K.K., Renninger, N.S. Available at: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1314981 [Accessed 4 Jun. Ethiopia. Unlike an infusion, the herbal ingredients are boiled in the water for some length of time. Hsu, E., 2006. London, 29 – 39 Brunswick Sq., London WC1N 1AX. Creative Commons Attribution only licence CC BY 4.0, – Molecular structure of artemisinin: own work, – Artesunate: public domain – Author: Eggi -https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benutzer:Eggi, – A. annua botanical illustration: “Artemisia annua”, USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. recurrence of disease symptoms, often months after the apparently successful treatment. The mature plants on the other hand are quite resistant to those climate conditions. In this essay, we do not intend to advise or recommend herbs for medicinal or health use. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 100(4), pp.170–174. These details suggested that the active compound might be easily decomposed by heat. It is widely used for the treatment of skin diseases, especially systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), psoriasis and eczema. Hausmann-Muela, S. and Eckl, J., 2015. This plant can be weedy or invasive according to the authoritative sources noted below.This plant may be known by one or more common names in different places, and some are listed above. [10] The small flowers have a diameter of 2–2.5 mm and are arranged in loose panicles. Several different groups of organic chemists have managed to make artemisinin. [38][39] Emergence of artemisinin resistance has been identified in Cambodia and the border of Thailand. There is no reason to believe that this rule should not apply to these teas as much as it applies to pure pharmaceutical drugs. In: C. Wright, ed., Artemisia, 1st ed. Cui, L. and Su, X., 2009. A modern day … 2016]. Delabays, N., Darbellay, C. and Galland, N., 2002. [27], In the last 20 years researchers focused on the activity of artemisinin against malaria. The whole plant is harvested and cut into branches which are dried in the sun or in an oven. Thomas, J., 2013. Artemisia annua Taxonomy ID: 35608 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid35608) current name. 19, 20 and 21 Page 523 Sweet Annie, sweet sagewort, armoise annuelle, Flora of China Vol. Phosphate fertilization can lead to a higher artemsinin content in the leaves. – A.-annua in bloom: “Artemisia annua L.” Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Trieste, Progetto Dryades, Picture by Andrea Moro, Creative Commons Share-Alike 3.0 License, – Ge Hong: Wellcome Images collection, image number L0039323. [36], Despite global efforts in combating malaria, it remains a large burden for the population, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. Habit. [34] A 2012 review said that artemisinin-based remedies are the most effective drugs for the treatment of malaria. Spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. [online] Available at: https://amyris.com/collaborations/artemisinin/ [Accessed 4 Jun. However, there are some problems with this approach. The highest concentration of Artemisia species is found in Asia (Mucciarelli & Maffei 2002). From shop SciTonics. Seriphidium Less. It has been suggested that the important part here is the “wringing” step, which might cause the release of various oily compounds from the plant which form an emulsion and help to extract the artemisinin. In the Vietnam War, malaria was an enormous problem for both sides since it incapacitated a significant proportion of troops (Beadle & Hoffman 1993). One puzzling aspect of the traditional extraction as reported by Ge Hong is still yet to be conclusively explained; the active compound artemisinin is now known to have very low solubility in water, so how can an efficacious medicine be made using only cold water for extraction? Artemisia Annua is an annual aromatic herb from Asia that has been used in China to treat fevers for centuries. A special hybrid of Artemisia annua, known as Artemisia annua anamed ("A-3") is especially important for the natural treatment of malaria, because it is adapted for the warmer climates where malaria is endemic. However, since artemisinin is quite a complex molecule it is difficult to design a process which is efficient enough to compete with simply growing the plant. A., Das, D., Smith, J., Venkatesan, M., Plowe, C. V., Stepniewska, K., Guerin, P. J., Dondorp, A. M., Day, N. P. and White, N. J., 2014. Cistus creticus: A tough little plant with history as old as Europe, Deadly Nightshade: to blight, bewitch, and beautify. It is also known as Sweet Wormwood. Thus the few parasites that are resistant to the drug are selected out and are able to proliferate. Another high-tech approach obviates the need to grow the plant at all. Cannabis Sativa (Indian Hemp): Queen Victoria’s secret. B., Hirt, H. M. and Wemakor, E., 2000. Is malaria a disease of poverty? Wang, Z., Yang, L., Yang, X. and Zhang, X., 2014. The genus Artemisia belongs to the Compositae (daisy and sunflower family) and includes well-known plants used in medicine, perfumery and the food and drink industry, such as A. dracunculus (tarragon), A. absinthium (absinthe) and A. vulgaris (mugwort). Randomized controlled trial of a traditional preparation of Artemisia annua L. (Annual Wormwood) in the treatment of malaria. for THR products). The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 35(2), pp.2–3. A. annua is a slow-growing wind-pollinated plant, native to temperate Asia and Eastern Europe, and is now also naturalized in North America (Woerdenbag & Pras 2002). Artemisia Annua was first discovered by the Chinese physicians in the 4th century. [12] Nitrogen is required during early branching stages, an amount of approximately 70 kg N/ha is sufficient for the plant. 2004). It is a fast-growing, giant annual with upright, often red stems and bright green, pinnately divided, saw-toothed leaves.

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